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One of the big challenges in robotics is the generalization necessary for performing unknown tasks in unknown environments on unknown objects. For us humans, this challenge is simplified by the commonsense knowledge we can access. For cognitive robotics, representing and acquiring commonsense knowledge is a relevant problem, so we perform a systematic literature review to investigate the current state of commonsense knowledge exploitation in cognitive robotics. For this review, we combine a keyword search on six search engines with a snowballing search on six related reviews, resulting in 2,048 distinct publications. After applying pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, we analyse the remaining 52 publications. Our focus lies on the use cases and domains for which commonsense knowledge is employed, the commonsense aspects that are considered, the datasets/resources used as sources for commonsense knowledge and the methods for evaluating these approaches. Additionally, we discovered a divide in terminology between research from the knowledge representation and reasoning and the cognitive robotics community. This divide is investigated by looking at the extensive review performed by Zech et al. (The International Journal of Robotics Research, 2019, 38, 518–562), with whom we have no overlapping publications despite the similar goals.

We explore an alternative approach to the design of robots that deviates from the common envisionment of having one unified agent. What if robots are depicted as an agentic ensemble where agency is distributed over different components? In the project presented here, we investigate the potential contributions of this approach to creating entertaining and joyful human-robot interaction (HRI), which also remains comprehensible to human observers. We built a service robot—which takes care of plants as a Plant-Watering Robot (PWR)—that appears as a small ship controlled by a robotic captain accompanied by kinetic elements. The goal of this narrative design, which utilizes a distributed agency approach, is to make the robot entertaining to watch and foster its acceptance. We discuss the robot’s design rationale and present observations from an exploratory study in two contrastive settings, on a university campus and in a care home for people with dementia, using a qualitative video-based approach for analysis. Our observations indicate that such a design has potential regarding the attraction, acceptance, and joyfulness it can evoke. We discuss aspects of this design approach regarding the field of elderly care, limitations of our study, and identify potential fields of use and further scopes for studies.

Objective: For transradial amputees, robotic prosthetic hands promise to regain the capability to perform daily living activities. Current control methods based on physiological signals such as electromyography (EMG) are prone to yielding poor inference outcomes due to motion artifacts, muscle fatigue, and many more. Vision sensors are a major source of information about the environment state and can play a vital role in inferring feasible and intended gestures. However, visual evidence is also susceptible to its own artifacts, most often due to object occlusion, lighting changes, etc. Multimodal evidence fusion using physiological and vision sensor measurements is a natural approach due to the complementary strengths of these modalities.

Methods: In this paper, we present a Bayesian evidence fusion framework for grasp intent inference using eye-view video, eye-gaze, and EMG from the forearm processed by neural network models. We analyze individual and fused performance as a function of time as the hand approaches the object to grasp it. For this purpose, we have also developed novel data processing and augmentation techniques to train neural network components.

Results: Our results indicate that, on average, fusion improves the instantaneous upcoming grasp type classification accuracy while in the reaching phase by 13.66% and 14.8%, relative to EMG (81.64% non-fused) and visual evidence (80.5% non-fused) individually, resulting in an overall fusion accuracy of 95.3%.

Conclusion: Our experimental data analyses demonstrate that EMG and visual evidence show complementary strengths, and as a consequence, fusion of multimodal evidence can outperform each individual evidence modality at any given time.

The robotics discipline is exploring precise and versatile solutions for upper-limb rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). People with MS can greatly benefit from robotic systems to help combat the complexities of this disease, which can impair the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). In order to present the potential and the limitations of smart mechatronic devices in the mentioned clinical domain, this review is structured to propose a concise SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Analysis of robotic rehabilitation in MS. Through the SWOT Analysis, a method mostly adopted in business management, this paper addresses both internal and external factors that can promote or hinder the adoption of upper-limb rehabilitation robots in MS. Subsequently, it discusses how the synergy with another category of interaction technologies - the systems underlying virtual and augmented environments - may empower Strengths, overcome Weaknesses, expand Opportunities, and handle Threats in rehabilitation robotics for MS. The impactful adaptability of these digital settings (extensively used in rehabilitation for MS, even to approach ADL-like tasks in safe simulated contexts) is the main reason for presenting this approach to face the critical issues of the aforementioned SWOT Analysis. This methodological proposal aims at paving the way for devising further synergistic strategies based on the integration of medical robotic devices with other promising technologies to help upper-limb functional recovery in MS.

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